More Performance Essays

Performance Typology and Concept Map
Performance Typology Map

Click the performance concept map above or one of the links below

Other Resources

Learning Environment Design Framework
Instructional Design Toolkit



Performers in the Organization

This level looks at the job and the performers who carry out those jobs in Rummler & Brache's "Three level Framework" (1990):

Goals Design Management
Organization Level Organization Goals Organization Design Organization Management
Process Level Process Goals Process Design Process Management
Job/Performer Level Job Goals Job Design Job Management
If capable, well-trained people are placed in a setting with clear expectations, minimal task interference, reinforcing consequences, and appropriate feedback, then they will be motivated. - Geary Rummler and Alan Brache, (1990)

Job/Performer Goals

People make processes work, thus their goals need to be directed towards process contributions.

Job/Performer Design

Design looks at such factors as ergonomics, sequence of activities, job procedures, and the allocation of responsibilities.

Job/Performer Management

This level ensure that good leadership is provided.

Performance Analysis Quadrant

To help manage the performer, the Performance Analysis Quadrant (see note below) is a useful tool as it helps with pin-pointing deficiencies. By asking two questions, "Does the employee have adequate job knowledge?" and "Does the employee have the proper attitude (desire) to perform the job?" and then assigning a numerical rating between 1 and 10 for each answer, places the employee in 1 of 4 possible performance quadrants:

Performance Analysis Quadrant Motivation Environment Selection Training

(For more information, click on any of the four quadrant)

Note: The four quadrants are based on Jones' (1993) description of the four factors that affects job performance.


Jones, B. (1993). The four domains affecting job performance. Internal Document, Delta Air Lines. Atlanta, GA. As found in, Mancuso, V. (1995). Moving from Theory to Practice: Integrating Human Factors into an Organization. Seattle WA: Annual Flight Safety Foundation Conference. Retrieved Aug 17, 2011 from

Rummler, G. & Brache, A., (1990). Improving Performance: How to Manage the White Space on the Organization Chart. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.