Performers in the Organization
This level looks at the job and the performers who carry out those jobs in Rummler & Brache's "Three level Framework" (1990):
|Organization Level||Organization Goals||Organization Design||Organization Management|
|Process Level||Process Goals||Process Design||Process Management|
|Job/Performer Level||Job Goals||Job Design||Job Management|
If capable, well-trained people are placed in a setting with clear expectations, minimal task interference, reinforcing consequences, and appropriate feedback, then they will be motivated. - Geary Rummler and Alan Brache, (1990)
People make processes work, thus their goals need to be directed towards process contributions.
Design looks at such factors as ergonomics, sequence of activities, job procedures, and the allocation of responsibilities.
This level ensure that good leadership is provided.
Performance Analysis Quadrant
To help manage the performer, the Performance Analysis Quadrant (see note below) is a useful tool as it helps with pin-pointing deficiencies. By asking two questions, "Does the employee have adequate job knowledge?" and "Does the employee have the proper attitude (desire) to perform the job?" and then assigning a numerical rating between 1 and 10 for each answer, places the employee in 1 of 4 possible performance quadrants:
(For more information, click on any of the four quadrant)
- Quadrant A (Motivation): If the employee has sufficient job knowledge but has an improper attitude, this may be classed as motivational problem. The consequences (rewards) of the person's behavior will have to be adjusted. This is not always bad...the employee just might not realize the consequence of his or her actions.
- Quadrant B (Resource/Process/Environment): If the employee has both job knowledge and a favorable attitude, but performance is unsatisfactory, then the problem may be out of control of the employee. i.e. lack of resources or time, task needs process improvement, the work station is not ergonomically designed, etc.
- Quadrant C (Selection): If the employee lacks both job knowledge and a favorable attitude, that person may be improperly placed in the position. This may imply a problem with employee selection or promotion, and suggest that a transfer or discharge be considered.
- Quadrant D (Training): If the employee desires to perform, but lacks the requisite job knowledge or skills, then additional training or development may be the answer.
Note: The four quadrants are based on Jones' (1993) description of the four factors that affects job performance.
Jones, B. (1993). The four domains affecting job performance. Internal Document, Delta Air Lines. Atlanta, GA. As found in, Mancuso, V. (1995). Moving from Theory to Practice: Integrating Human Factors into an Organization. Seattle WA: Annual Flight Safety Foundation Conference. Retrieved Aug 17, 2011 from http://www.crm-devel.org/ftp/mancuso.pdf
Rummler, G. & Brache, A., (1990). Improving Performance: How to Manage the White Space on the Organization Chart. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.