Learning and Training Definitions in Instructional Design
Training is everything. The peach was once a bitter almond; cauliflower is nothing but cabbage with a college education. — Mark Twain in Pudd'nhead Wilson
Before trying to identify ISD, we must first understand what training is.
Training is defined as learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job (Nadler, 1984).
This differs from a few other definitions in that rather than “training” being used as a verbto train, it defines it from the learners' actionan activity they perform.
Performance is improved by helping the learners to master a new or established technology. The technology may be a piece of heavy machinery, a computer, a procedure for creating a product, or a method of providing a service.
Notice that the last part of the definition states that training is provided for the present job. This includes training new personnel to perform their job, introducing a new technology, or helping an employee to achieve standards.
Earlier it was stated that there are four inputs to a system: people, material, technology, and time. Training is mainly concerned with the meeting of two of these inputs: people and technologyhelping people master a given technology.
While we often think of technology as computers, electronics, etc., it is much more. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines technology as the practical application of knowledge, especially in a particular area. It includes the usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, and crafts, or a system or method for organization.
Training is part of Human Resource Development (HRD). Do not confuse HRD with the term “human resource department.” A human resource department is concerned with all aspects of the employees, such as pay, benefits, equal opportunity, and training. HRD is concerned with training, development, and education.
HRD has been defined as an organized learning experience, conducted in a definite time period, to increase the possibility of improving job performance and growth (Nadler, 1984).
If you don't know where you are going, any road will take you there. — Lewis Carroll in Alice's Adventure in Wonderland (1865).
Organized means that it is conducted in a systematic way. Although learning can be incidental, training is concerned with the worker learning clear and concise standards of performance or objectives. Objectives are the tools for guiding managers, learners, and trainers. Managers need objectives so that they know what kind of return they are receiving from their training investment. Learners need them so that they know exactly what is expected of them. And trainers need them to plan and conduct the learning environment so that they may help the learners achieve the desired results. This is commonly known as Formal Learning.
In addition, it is also concerned with Informal Learning (Nadler, 1984). Informal Learning is not unorganized—it is just more individualized than Informal Learning. It differs from Incidental Learning that the learner sets out and plans his or her learning, where as Incidental Learning occurs by chance.
The second part of the definition, conducted in a definite time period, means that the amount of time the learner will be away from work must be determined and specified at the onset of the training program.
The last part of the statement reads: to increase the possibility of improving job performance and growth. By possibility, it means that although an organization can provide tools to help the learner succeed, such as education and training specialists, counselors, coaches, and state-of-the-art training materials, the ultimate responsibility for success belongs to the learner.
HRD programs are normally divided into three main categories: Training, Development, and Education. Although some organizations lump all learning under “Training” or “Training and Development,” dividing it into three distinct categories makes the desired goals and objects more meaningful and precise.
As discussed earlier, training is the acquisition of technology which permits employees to perform their present job to standards. It improves human performance on the job the employee is presently doing or is being hired to do. Also, it is given when new technology in introduced into the workplace.
Education is training people to do a different job. It is often given to people who have been identified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or upwards, or to increase their potential. Unlike training, which can be fully evaluated immediately upon the learners returning to work, education can only be completely evaluated when the learners move on to their future jobs or tasks. We can test them on what they learned while in training, but we cannot be fully satisfied with the evaluation until we see how well they perform their new jobs.
Development is training people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints. It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive rather than reactive. It enables workers to create better products, faster services, and more competitive organizations. It is learning for growth of the individual, but not related to a specific present or future job. Unlike training and education, which can be completely evaluated, development cannot always be fully evaluated. This does not mean that we should abandon development programs, as helping people to grow and develop is what keeps an organization in the cutting edge of competitive environments. Development can be considered the forefront of what many now call the Learning Organization.
Training includes such objectives as picking up a pallet with a forklift or performing CPR. These are activities that can be mastered by a learner in a specific time frame then be immediately transferred to the job.
Development is more long term and often needs other driving forces. For example, Starbucks offered diversity classes in its early days. You cannot really "train" someone to perform it in a specific time, rather the full concept and living it is developed over a longer time period. In addition it needs other driving forces, mostly leaders who talk-the-talk AND walk-the-walk; the learners need strong role models. The classes give them the big picture and concepts, while the role models give them living examples.
Notice where the main learning activity occurs. Operating a forklift it is focused more on the initial training to ensure they can not only perform correctly, but also operate in a safe manner (cause no injuries or damage). The forklift operators then further develop their skills through practice on the job. In the case of diversity it is focused more on the development—the role models, while the training is more of an introduction.
Knowing where your learning/training/development/education dollars are going to allows the organization to allocate its resources more wisely.
Also, do not confuse development with change. Change refers to alterations that occur over time in the learners' internal cogitative or affective characteristics (Learner, 1986). This change may be quantitative or qualitative and it implies no directionality, encompassing both regression and progression. Development is always progressive.
ISD (Instructional System Design) is the application of proven learning processes to determine the what, where, when, and how of training (U.S. Army Field Artillery School, 1984).
Using ISD to design training, education, and development programs ensure that an organization gets the most from its resources. Although this guide mainly discusses the creation of training programs, development and education programs can also be built by using an ISD approach with little or no modifications.
While the concept of ISD has been around since the early 1950s, ADDIE first appeared in 1975 (see the ISD and the ADDIE timelines. It was created by the Center for Educational Technology at Florida State University for the U.S. Armed Forces (Branson, Rayner, Cox, Furman, King, Hannum, 1975; Watson, 1981).
ADDIE is a model that follows the ISD framework and is composed of five steps: Analysis, Design, Development, Implement, and Evaluate.
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Branson, R. K., Rayner, G. T., Cox, J. L., Furman, J. P., King, F. J., Hannum, W. H. (1975). Interservice procedures for instructional systems development. (5 vols.) (TRADOC Pam 350-30 NAVEDTRA 106A). Ft. Monroe, VA: U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, August 1975. (NTIS No. ADA 019 486 through ADA 019 490).
Learner, R. (1986). Concepts and Theories of Human Development (2nd ed.). New York: Random House).
Nadler, Leonard (1984). The Handbook of Human Resource Development. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
U.S. Army Field Artillery School (1984). A System Approach To Training. ST - 5K061FD92
Watson, Russell (October 1981). Instructional System Development. In a paper presented to the International Congress for Individualized Instruction. EDRS publication ED 209 239.